What Is Concrete In Cement?

Concrete In Cement

Building a structure necessitates a substantial investment of time and resources, with the anticipation that it will endure for a considerable period. Among the crucial elements utilized in construction, concrete stands out. Concrete is responsible for providing longevity to the structure due to its unwavering characteristics, which make it resistant to rust, erosion, weathering, and other natural occurrences. Furthermore, research has indicated that the strength of concrete typically improves over time. Detailed information regarding concrete, including its composition, grades, types, and more, can be found below.

Definition for Concrete

Concrete is composed of various raw materials including cement, aggregates (such as sand, gravel, or rocks), and water. Cement acts as a binding agent, providing concrete with its ability to harden. In its freshly mixed state, concrete is flexible and can be shaped into virtually any form. However, once it hardens, it becomes resilient and long-lasting. The combination of concrete’s durability, strength, and affordability makes it an essential component in construction projects.

How is Concrete Made?

Now that you have acquired an understanding of the definition of concrete, let us now delve into the intricacies of the concrete production process:

The ingredients

Portland Cement

Portland cement is widely utilized as the most prevalent type of cement across the globe. The process involves crushing and heating calcareous materials such as limestone, clay, shale, etc., along with silica, iron oxide, and alumina in a kiln. This results in the formation of clinker, which is then finely ground into marble-sized pebbles to produce Portland cement.


Aggregates can exist in either fine or coarse forms. They are commonly made up of natural sand, finely crushed stones, or gravel. Natural gravel is obtained from various sources such as rivers, lakes, and seabeds. Quarry rocks, boulders, and cobbles are crushed to create these aggregates. The quality of concrete is determined by factors such as the durability, shape and size, surface texture, abrasion resistance, and surface moisture of the aggregates. It is worth noting that aggregates constitute a significant portion, ranging from 70% to 80%, of the concrete composition.


The combination of concrete and cement results in a paste that binds the aggregate together. Hydration, a chemical process, facilitates the formation of chemical bonds between the components of the cement and water molecules, leading to the creation of hydrates or hydration products. The hardening of concrete is attributed to the presence of water. Excessive water content leads to weak concrete, while insufficient water makes the concrete difficult to work with. Therefore, achieving the correct balance between cement and water is essential.

Types of Concrete

Normal strength concrete

Normal strength concrete is a blend of cement, aggregate, and water in a 1:2:4 ratio. The water ratio can be adjusted based on the humidity of the area. Structures that do not require high tensile strength, such as pavements, can be constructed using normal strength concrete.

Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC)

RCC gains its strength from wires, steel rods, and cables embedded in the concrete before it sets to enhance its tensile strength. It is utilized in structures that need to support heavy loads, such as tall buildings, bridges, dams, etc.

Ferro Concrete

Ferro concrete is a type of reinforced concrete where chicken wire mesh is used for reinforcement. It is commonly used in making concrete pipes, manhole covers, slabs, etc.

Plain Concrete

Plain concrete does not have any reinforcements to increase its tensile strength. It is used in constructing grade slabs, concrete blocks, verandas, etc.

Pre stressed Concrete

Bars and tendons are stressed to enhance the load capacity and deflection resistance of the concrete. Pre stressed concrete is employed in high-rise buildings, retaining walls, bridge decks, etc.

Precast Concrete

Precast concrete structures are manufactured off-site and then transported to the location where they are assembled for use. They typically include reinforcements.

Lightweight Concrete

Lightweight concrete is a type of concrete that helps reduce the overall weight of the structure. Long-spanning bridge decks and building blocks often utilize lightweight concrete.

High-Density Concrete

High-density concrete is produced using heavy-weight aggregates. This type of concrete is commonly used in the construction of atomic power plants and similar structures to resist radiation.

Polymer Concrete

Polymer concrete replaces cement with polymer to bind the aggregates, reducing the number of pores in the concrete.


Limecrete concrete uses lime instead of cement to bind lightweight aggregates like sharp sand or glass fiber. Its applications can be found in floors, domes, vaults, etc.

Grades of Concrete

The compressive strength that concrete must achieve after 28 days of setting is known as the grade of concrete. The different grades of concrete are as follows:

Ordinary Concrete – M10 M15 M20

Standard Concrete – M25 M30 M35 M40 M45 M50 M55

High Strength Concrete – M60 M65 M70 M75 M80

Benefits of Concrete

Concrete continues to be a favored choice for construction due to its affordability and minimal upkeep requirements.

  • Its ability to provide enduring strength and resilience to structures is unmatched.
  • Additionally, its versatility allows it to be shaped into various forms.
  • By utilizing recycled materials, concrete also contributes to sustainability efforts.
  • With the added benefits of easy maintenance, low energy consumption, and resistance to environmental factors, concrete remains a reliable building material.
  • Enhance the robustness of your concrete projects with our selection of JK Cement products.

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